Optimal risk classification with an application to substandard annuities

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><collection xmlns="http://www.loc.gov/MARC21/slim" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.loc.gov/MARC21/slim http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/schema/MARC21slim.xsd">
  <record>
    <leader>00000cab a2200000   4500</leader>
    <controlfield tag="001">MAP20130010892</controlfield>
    <controlfield tag="003">MAP</controlfield>
    <controlfield tag="005">20130401175654.0</controlfield>
    <controlfield tag="008">130401e20121203esp|||p      |0|||b|spa d</controlfield>
    <datafield tag="040" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
      <subfield code="a">MAP</subfield>
      <subfield code="b">spa</subfield>
      <subfield code="d">MAP</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="084" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
      <subfield code="a">1</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="100" ind1="1" ind2=" ">
      <subfield code="0">MAPA20080644536</subfield>
      <subfield code="a">Gatzert, Nadine</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="245" ind1="1" ind2="0">
      <subfield code="a">Optimal risk classification with an application to substandard annuities</subfield>
      <subfield code="c">Nadine Gatzert, Gudrun Schmitt-Hoermann, Hato Schmeiser</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="520" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
      <subfield code="a">Substandard annuities pay higher pensions to individuals with impaired health and thus require special underwriting of applicants. Although such risk classification can substantially increase a companys profitability, these products are uncommon except for the well-established U.K. market.In this paper we comprehensively analyze this issue and make several contributions to the literature.First, we describe enhanced, impaired life, and care annuities, and then we discuss the under writing process and underwriting risk related thereto. Second, we propose a theoretical model to determine the optimal profit-maximizing risk classification system for substandard annuities.Based on the model framework and for given price-demand dependencies, we formally show the effect of classification costs and costs of underwriting risk on profitability for insurers.Risk classes are distinguished by the average mortality of contained insureds, whereby mortality heterogeneity is included by means of a frailty model. Third, we discuss key aspects regarding a practical implementation of our model as well as possible market entry barriers for substandard annuity providers.</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="773" ind1="0" ind2=" ">
      <subfield code="w">MAP20077000239</subfield>
      <subfield code="t">North American actuarial journal</subfield>
      <subfield code="d">Schaumburg : Society of Actuaries, 1997-</subfield>
      <subfield code="x">1092-0277</subfield>
      <subfield code="g">03/12/2012 Tomo 16 Número 4  - 2012 </subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="856" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
      <subfield code="y">MÁS INFORMACIÓN</subfield>
      <subfield code="u">mailto:centrodocumentacion@fundacionmapfre.org?subject=Consulta%20de%20una%20publicaci%C3%B3n%20&body=Necesito%20m%C3%A1s%20informaci%C3%B3n%20sobre%20este%20documento%3A%20%0A%0A%5Banote%20aqu%C3%AD%20el%20titulo%20completo%20del%20documento%20del%20que%20desea%20informaci%C3%B3n%20y%20nos%20pondremos%20en%20contacto%20con%20usted%5D%20%0A%0AGracias%20%0A</subfield>
    </datafield>
  </record>
</collection>